Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) remains the most common cause of poor visual outcome
following cataract surgery. Whereas acute PCME may resolve itself spontaneously, some patients will suffer from
vision impairment and will be difficult to treat. Although PCME has already been described approximately 50
years ago, its pathophysiology remains uncertain and a multitude of mechanisms have been suggested. As broad as
the mechanisms, as many are the treatment options. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) and
corticosteroids either as mono- or combined therapy are a commonly used first line approach. When ineffective,
systemic treatment with these agents may be an option. Alternatively, intravitreal application of corticosteroids and
anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) may offer an effective option, if first-line treatment fails. A
critical evaluation of the current literature revealed that the optimal treatment of PCME remains unclear and requires further investigation.
In addition, prevention should be of foremost importance and remains an open issue. Identification of risk factors, application of
NSAIDs and consequent follow-up are potential essential steps in the avoidance of this complication.