Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), having both multi-potent differentiation potential
and prominent immunomodulatory properties, are seen as a very powerful tool for the therapy of diseases
characterized by tissue damage and/or unregulated immune responses. Dendritic cells (DCs) are
key immunoregulatory cells at the crossroads between immunity and tolerance, able to fine-tune the
whole immune response via regulation of adaptive immunity. Therefore, untangling the complex interactions
between DCs and MSCs is crucial for understanding various mechanisms involved in the
pathogenesis of immune-related diseases and for the discovery of new therapeutic targets for advanced
treatment procedures. From this perspective, we reviewed the data that have been obtained to date regarding the complex
effects of MSCs on DC development and functions, delineating the abundant mechanisms involved in these interactions.
Additionally, we have pointed out to additional mechanisms of MSC/DC cross-talk that have not been directly proven, but
that could have a significant role, not only in DC functions and the maintenance of immune homeostasis, but also in migration,
differentiation and the functions of MSCs. For now, much more is known about the influence of MSCs on DCs
than vice versa, so more studies should be done in order to fully understand this cross-talk.