Multimodal imaging agents were first introduced a decade ago and consist of a
targeting moiety that is dual-labeled with radioactive and fluorescent contrast. These compounds
allow whole-body and intraoperative imaging to be performed through administration
of a single agent and provide complementary diagnostic information that can be used to
guide tumor resection. Since their initial evaluation, interest in dual-labeled agents has continued
to grow and their design has subsequently evolved alongside the development of
novel chelating agents, improved fluorophores, and highly selective coupling techniques for bioconjugate
formation. In this review, will discuss how changes in the labeling components and schemes for multimodal
agent development have impacted imaging performance and will focus on antibody- and peptide-based agents
as models for dual labeling. We will also describe the growing role of modular dual labeling strategies as well
as direct labeling methods using radiohalogens.
Keywords: Dual labeling, molecular imaging, multimodality, near-infrared fluorescence, radioisotope, nuclear imaging.
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