T cell activity has been stimulated to enhance anti-tumor activity for several decades.
Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes have been expanded and reinfused to treat melanoma and other solid
tumor cancers, and adaptive immune modulators have been used to increase endogenous T cell activity
against cancer. Both of these strategies rely on the pre-existence of adequate recognition of cancer
cells by the T cells which are being activated. Redirected T cell therapies represent a paradigm shift in
treatment. They do not rely on endogenous T cell recognition but instead focus the T cells onto a defined
tumor antigen. This review summarizes both molecular and cellular T cell redirecting therapies, compares
their success in the clinic and highlights both their limitations and some potential future solutions.
Keywords: Adoptive immunotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, CAR, CD3 bispecific, chimeric antigen receptor.
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