Biopolymer-based nanostructures or microstructures can be fabricated with different compositions,
structures, and properties so that colloidal delivery systems can be tailored for specific applications.
These structures can be assembled using various approaches, including electrospinning, coacervation,
nanoprecipitation, injection, layer-by-layer deposition, and/or gelation. A major application
of biopolymer-based particles is to encapsulate, protect, and release active molecules in the agricultural,
food, supplements, personal care, and pharmaceutical sectors. The inherent variability and complexity of biopolymers
(proteins and polysaccharides) often makes it challenging to produce particles with well-defined physicochemical and
functional attributes. In this review, we discuss the properties of biopolymers, common particle fabrication methods, and
some of the major challenges and opportunities associated with developing biopolymer-based particles for application as
food-grade delivery systems.