The delivery of drugs to brain is a daunting task due to the presence of multiple protective
barriers. Nanoparticles (NPs), due to their ability to deliver and accumulate drugs in brain by crossing
the blood brain barrier, have emerged as effective brain targeting drug delivery system. The major
drawback of NPs obstructing their application in brain related diseases is neurotoxicity which leads to
memory deficit, behavioural changes, changes in the structure and membrane potential of the neurons. An understanding
of the molecular mechanisms associated with nanoparticle induced neurotoxicity is essential to solve the problem. NPs
induce cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and epigenetic changes. This review focuses on nanoparticles, their physicochemical
characteristics, manifestations of neurotoxicity and the mechanisms through which neurotoxicity is induced. This review
may help in improving the understanding of the mechanisms associated with nanoparticle induced neurotoxicity so as to
devise ways to overcome the associated neurotoxicity.
Keywords: Cytotoxicity, developmental neurotoxicity, epigenetics, genotoxicity, nanoparticles, neurotoxicity.
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