Combination therapy with anti-muscarinics (AMs) and β3 agonists (β3As) has recently been
proposed as a possible treatment for the management of patients with Overactive Bladder (OAB). Evidence
acquisition: A National Center for Biotechnology Information PubMed search for relevant articles
published between 2007 and 2014 was performed by combining the following Patient population,
Intervention, Comparison, Outcome (PICO) terms: overactive bladder, antimuscarinics, β3 agonists,
combination therapy, efficacy, tolerability and outcomes. Additional references were obtained from the reference list of
full-text manuscripts. Abstracts presented at the annual congresses of the European Association of Urology, American
Urology Association and the International Continence Society were included. Evidence Synthesis: The combination therapy,
in the management of OAB symptoms, has recently been investigated in animal models and in a phase II randomized
clinical trial. Compared with AMs monotherapy, combination treatment improved mean voided volume per micturition,
micturition frequency and reduced urgency episodes. No dose related trends in adverse events (AEs) were observed between
combination group and monotherapy group. Incidence of constipation was slightly increased in combination therapy
group. Conclusions: Combination therapy seems to be an effective and safe treatment in the management of OAB.
However, further cost-effectiveness studies are needed to evaluate the definitive role of this approach for the management
of patients with OAB.