In the rapidly developing areas of nanotechnology, nano-scale materials as heterogeneous catalysts in
the synthesis of organic molecules have got more and more attentions. In this review, we will summarize the synthesis
of a new type of ultrathin nanostructure via wet chemical method and several new catalytic applications to
establish heterogeneous catalytic system in “green” environments. Further study shows that these materials have
higher catalytic activity and selectivity than previously reported nanocrystal catalysts. This review intends to combine
nanomaterials preparation and organic chemistry to find new catalysts for low-cost, efficient, highly selective
chemical synthesis. The catalytic transformation of functional groups based on novel nanomaterials, can achieve not only "atoms economy",
but also the chemical processes show low energy consumption and induce low pollution at the same time. The whole process
might have a great impact to resolve the energy crisis and the environmental crisis, which was caused by the traditional chemical engineering.
The main contents of the review include: 1) synthesis of ultrathin metallic nanostructures; 2) important catalytic molecule activation and
the functional group transformation process at interface in the nano-catalyzed process; 3) understanding the effect of crystal structure of
the nano-catalysts on the catalytic activity; 4) point out a novel solution of "green chemistry" based on non-supported nanocatalyst.