Introduction: Currently used methods of articular cartilage repair, other than transplantation
of autologous chondrocytes, include transplantation of allogeneic cartilage, non-viable cartilage preparations
and various matrices in combination with in vitro cultured chondrocytes or pluripotent stem cells.
Methods: The material for this paper was derived from the review of scientific literature and that of
our own laboratory experience.
Conclusion: To date, non-viable particulate cartilage preparations show the most promise in as much
as their application results in healing of isolated articular cartilage defects. The experience with bioengineering
of cartilage demonstrates that despite numerous efforts various techniques based on in vitro
cultivation of isolated chondrocytes have not resulted in the formation of structurally and functionally sound cartilage.
The experience gained to date indicates that to produce normal cartilage chondrocytes must act in concert with biologic
matrices and substrates.