Male infertility has been increasing over the last decades being nowadays a pressing health problem.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) can contribute directly or indirectly to male infertility due to an abnormal spermatogenesis,
which results in a decreased sperm quality. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is responsible for the vast majority of
DM cases, being frequently treated with oral antidiabetic drugs. Metformin is the most cost-effective therapy for the treatment of T2DM.
This biguanide is an oral insulin-sensitizing agent capable of increasing insulin sensitivity and decreasing plasma fasting insulin levels.
The main metabolic action of this drug occurs in the liver. However, it has been shown that metformin acts on a variety of organs including
the male reproductive system. With the rising numbers of diabetic individuals among younger populations, there is an increase in the
consumption of metformin in individuals of this age group. As a result, it is important to discuss the role of metformin in male fertility.
This review presents the most recent data available from studies on the effects of metformin on male reproductive system. Together with
the discussion of these effects, their significance to male fertility is also debated.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, metabolism, metformin, male fertility, Sertoli cell, spermatogenesis.
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