MicroRNAs are 19-24 nucleotides noncoding RNAs which silence modulate the expression
of target genes by binding to the messenger RNAs. Myeloid malignancies include a broad spectrum of
acute and chronic disorders originating from from the clonal transformation of a hematopoietic stem
cell. Specific genetic abnormalities may define myeloid malignancies, such as translocation t(9;22)
that represent the hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia. Although next-generation sequencing provided
new insights in the genetic characterization and pathogenesis of myeloid neoplasms, the molecular
mechanisms underlying myeloid neoplasms are lacking in most cases. Recently, several studies
have demonstrated that the expression levels of specific miRNAs may vary among patients with myeloid malignancies
compared with healthy individuals and partially unveiled how miRNAs participate in the leukemic transformation process.
Finally, in vitro experiments and pre-clinical model provided preliminary data of the safety and efficacy of miRNA
inhibitory molecules, opening new avenue in the treatment of myeloid hematological malignancies.