Lung injury resulting from inhaled toxins continues to be associated with significant
morbidity and mortality. Inhalation injury, when combined with epidermal burns, increases fluid
resuscitation requirements. While cutaneous burns can be excised and grafted, pulmonary mucosa
must be protected from secondary injury caused by mechanical ventilation, resuscitation, and
infections to allow for host repair mechanisms. Many of the consequences of smoke inhalation result
from activation of an inflammatory response with immune mediators which are not completely
understood. Morbidity from smoke inhalation results from thermal injury and inhaled toxins.