Alpha-Ketoglutarate (AKG) is a biological substance that plays important roles in cell metabolism and physiology.
AKG is synthesized from glucose or oxaloacetate plus pyruvate. As an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle,
AKG is essential for the oxidation of fatty acids, amino acids, and glucose. Extracellular AKG is a significant source of
energy for cells of the gastrointestinal tract. As a precursor for the synthesis of glutamate and glutamine in multiple tissues
(including liver, skeletal muscle, heart, brain, and white adipose tissue), AKG bridges carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism
for both conservation of amino acids and ammonia detoxification. Additionally, emerging evidence shows that AKG
is a regulator of gene expression and cell signaling pathways (including the mammalian target of rapamycin and AMPactivated
protein kinase). Thus, AKG is an attractive dietary supplement in animal and human nutrition to improve cellular
energy status, immunity, and health.