Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the self-renewal ability and the ability to produce
multiple differentiation. Elucidating the genetic circuits that govern MSC self-renewal and differentiation
is necessary to improve our comprehension of MSCs and their role in regenerative medicine. microRNAs
(miRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of transcription, and are strongly linked
with MSCs regarding the maintenance of pluripotency properties. Peroxisome proliferator-activated
receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that belong to the nuclear hormonereceptor
family. Interestingly, PPARs not only regulate glucose metabolism and lipidhomeostasis, but also contribute to cell
proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell apoptosis. The aim of the present review was to provide an insight into the roles
of miRNAs and PPARs in the differentiation of MSCs. Understanding the miRNA signature interactions in conjunction
with the role of PPARs is critical for the development of improved strategies to regulate the differentiation of MSCs.
Keywords: Adipogenesis, chondrogenesis, differentiation, mesenchymal stem cell, microRNAs, osteogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-
activated receptors, regenerative medicine.
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