The objective of this study was to develop an efficient technique for enhancing the synthesis
of sulfosuccinic acid diester sodium salt, required for industrial purposes. A series of gemini surfactants
containing two symmetrical nonionic groups and an anionic moieties (polyoxyethylene stearyl
ether sodium sulfosuccinate: PSSE-n) are synthesized via additive reaction of the double bond with
sodium hydrogen sulfite under ultrasonic-microwave co-irradiation in solvent-free process. The structure
of products is confirmed by FT-IR and 1H NMR. Sulfonation reaction conditions are discussed by
single factor method. The optimal sulfonation reaction conditions are as follows: (i) n (maleic acid diester):
n (sodium hydrogen sulfite) =1:1, (ii) microwave / ultrasonic power of 300 W / 360 W, (iii)
reaction temperature 70°C, reaction time 60 min. Under the optimal conditions, series of products have reached up to a
sulfonation rate of 75%-80%. The sulfonation reaction temperature drops by 22°C-25°C and the reaction time reduces for
35 hours comparing to the conventional approach.
Keywords: Gemini surfactants, polyoxyethylenated stearyl ether sodium sulfosuccinate, sulfonation, surface activity, synthesis,
ultrasonic-assisted microwave technology.
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