Progesterone receptor membrane components 1 and 2, neudesin, and neuferricin belong to the membraneassociated
progesterone receptor (MAPR) family. Recently, sex steroid membrane receptors have gained attention because
of their potential involvement in sex hormone-mediated rapid non-genomic effects, which cannot currently be explained
by the genomic action of nuclear receptors. Progesterone may increase cell proliferation and survival via nongenomic
effects including the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-
kinase (PI3K) pathways through MAPRs. Moreover, the unique expression of MAPRs suggests that they could be used as
biomarkers and drug targets for sex steroid-related cancers and other diseases. In this review, we summarize the physiological
roles of the MAPRs, provide a comprehensive overview of their progesterone-mediated non-genomic actions, and
discuss new insights into their potential as therapeutic targets.
Keywords: Progesterone, PGRMC1, PGRMC2, neudesin, neuferricin, cancer.
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