Calcium (Ca2+) release from intracellular stores controls numerous cellular processes, including
cardiac and skeletal muscle contraction, synaptic transmission and metabolism. The ryanodine
receptors (RyRs: RyR1, RyR2, RyR3) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs: IP3R1,
IP3R2, IP3R3) are the major Ca2+ release channels (CRCs) on the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum
(ER/SR). RyRs and IP3Rs comprise macromolecular signaling complexes that include modulatory
proteins which regulate channel activity in response to extracellular signals resulting in intracellular
Ca2+ release. Here we focus on the roles of CRCs in heart, skeletal muscle, brain, metabolism, and aging.
Keywords: Aging, arrhythmias, cognitive dysfunction, diabetes, excitation-contraction coupling, heart failure, IP3 receptors,
metabolism, mitochondria, neurodegenerative disorders, RyR, skeletal muscle.
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