The aim of this paper was to present the etiological factors responsible for temporomandibular
joint dysfunction associated with psychoemotional disorders and possible drug therapy. Etiology
of this disorder is multifactorial. The term “stress” was explained, together with its influence on the human body and
its long-term effects. We emphasized the significance of factors that affect individual reaction to stress and patients’ personality
features favoring incorrect behavioral pattern. We also presented the mechanism of adverse effect of stress on
temporomandibular muscles and joints via the limbic system and gamma loop as well as the role of temporomandibular
reflexive regulation mechanisms. We explained the differences in reactivity between skeletal and masticatory muscles to
stress-inducing factors resulting from different embryonic origin, morphology, and biochemical reactions during muscle
contraction and presented drug therapy.
Keywords: Temporomandibular joint dysfunction, depression, limbic system, stress, pharmacological treatment, occlusal splint.
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