The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase, NOX) enzyme
family catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS have functional roles in cell
cycling and signal transduction but their excessive production results in oxidative stress which is believed
to have pathological consequences. Oxidative stress in the intestinal tract is considered a major
factor contributing to the pathogenesis and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as recent
data suggest a positive correlation between upregulated NOX and gastrointestinal inflammation.
Moreover, expression of certain NOX gene variants has been shown to affect the susceptibility of an
individual to develop IBD. As current treatments for IBD are not entirely effective, the pharmacological inhibition of
NOX is an unexplored avenue that could provide a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of this disease.