Atherosclerosis is the main underlying pathology of cardiovascular disease and is precipitated
by various hereditary and non-hereditary risk factors. Inflammation is considered an important
step in the progression of atherosclerosis and involves numerous cells, mediators and cellular procedures.
Therefore, a biomarker able to determine the vascular inflammatory status is imperative as the
combination of inflammatory biomarkers with the classic risk factors might provide further information
about atherosclerosis progression and cardiovascular risk. The identification of novel inflammatory
molecules and the improvement in analytical methods allows the potential implementation of
these tests in every day clinical practice. In the current article, we focus on the role of established and novel biomarkers in
atherosclerosis progression and in the determination of cardiovascular risk. We also present recent data concerning the
risk stratification of patients according to their inflammatory status and the possible anti-inflammatory treatment strategies.
Keywords: Atherosclerosis, biological markers, cardiovascular diseases, cardiovascular risk, cytokines, inflammation, interleukins.
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