HIV-1 Early Infant Diagnosis is an Effective Indicator of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Program Performance: Experience from Cameroon

Author(s): Edith Michele Saounde Temgoua, Celine Nguefeu Nkenfou, Anne Cecile Zoung-Kanyi Bissek, Joseph Fokam, Serge Clotaire Billong, Samuel Martin Sosso, Charlotte Tangipumdu, Elise Lobe Elong, Irenee Domkan, Vittorio Colizzi

Journal Name: Current HIV Research

Volume 13 , Issue 4 , 2015


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Abstract:

Background: Despite improvement in HIV prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), there are still over 1,500 African infants newly infected daily. PMTCT elimination requires antiretroviral therapy (ART) throughout pregnancy and breastfeeding periods, while early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV implies early treatment for those infected. Our study aimed at assessing the utility of EID program data in evaluating the implementation of PMTCT program in Cameroon, and in identifying the efficacy of existing PMTCT interventions and breastfeeding options on the events of HIV vertical transmission.

Methods: A study was conducted from 2010-2011 using PMTCT data from EID sites of six regions of Cameroon. PMTCT ARV regimens, breastfeeding options, and the child’s HIV DNA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results were recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using Mann Whitney U and Fisher exact tests, with p<0.05 considered significant.

Results: A total of 2,505 mother-child pairs received ART, resulting is 4.3% (93) vertical transmission, against 31.3% (284/906) among mother-child pairs without exposure to any PMTCT intervention; p<0.00001. A statistically significant difference (p<0.00001) was also found between formula feeding (FF) (5.9%) versus exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) (12.5%), as well as between EBF versus mixed feeding (MF) (30%). With FF, when both mother-child pairs received PMTCT, only 2.9% (47/1603) vertical transmission was recorded versus 19.9% (48/241) for mother-child pairs without intervention; p<0.00001. Transmission rates were similar across infant age range [2.7% (10/376) for age ≤6 weeks, versus 2.5% (43/1807) for age >6 weeks-6 months]. Interestingly, babies aged 6 weeks receiving FF showed a significantly lower transmission rate (3.2%, 9/277) as compared to their counterparts with EBF (7.7%, 12/156); p<0.00001.

Conclusion: Using EID dataset, it appears that considerable reduction in HIV MTCT may be achievable through access to ARV (option B+) and adequate infant feeding option (especially FF) in Cameroon. EID programme is therefore an effective routine approach for PMTCT programme evaluation in resource-limited settings.

Keywords: HIV mother-to-child transmission, early infant diagnosis, ARV regimen, feeding option, Cameroon.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 13
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2015
Published on: 14 June, 2015
Page: [286 - 291]
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/1570162X13666150407143525
Price: $65

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