The concept of Nanomedicine emerged along with the new millennium, and it is expected
to provide solutions to some of modern medicine’s unsolved problems. Nanomedicine offers new
hopes in several critical areas such as cancer treatment, viral and bacterial infections, medical
imaging, tissue regeneration, and theranostics. To explore all these applications, a wide variety of
nanomaterials have been developed which include liposomes, dendrimers, nanohydrogels and
polymeric, metallic and inorganic nanoparticles. Recently, interlocked systems, namely rotaxanes and
catenanes, have been incorporated into some of these chemical platforms in an attempt to improve
their performance. This review focus on the nanomedicine applications of nanomaterials containing
interlocked structures. The introduction gives an overview on the significance of interdisciplinary science in the progress
of the nanomedicine field, and it explains the evolution of interlocked molecules until their application in nanomedicine.
The following sections are organized by the type of interlocked structure, and it comprises details of the in vitro and/or in
vivo experiments involving each material: rotaxanes as imaging agents, rotaxanes as cytotoxic agents, rotaxanes as peptide
transporters, mechanized silica nanoparticles as stimuli responsive drug delivery systems, and polyrotaxanes as drug and
gene delivery systems.