Pleiotrophin (PTN) and Midkine (MK) are neurotrophines with documented protective actions
in experimental models of neurodegenerative diseases and beneficial effects on toxicity and addictive
behaviours related to drug abuse. Concerning the latter, both PTN and MK prevent the
neurotoxic effects of amphetamine on nigrostriatal pathways and endogenous PTN also limits amphetamine
reward. Moreover, endogenous PTN overexpression in the prefontral cortex abolishes alcohol-
induced conditioned place preference. This review summarizes the existing patents for using PTN
and MK in the treatment and diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders with a focus on neurotoxicity, neurodegeneration
and substance use disorders. We have also reviewed the mechanism of action of PTN and MK and summarized existing
patents on downstream modulators in their signaling pathways for the same indications.
Keywords: Addiction, Alzheimer’s disease, neurodegeneration, neuroprotection, Parkinson’s disease.
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