Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common hereditary autoinflammatory syndrome.
FMF is caused by mutations in the MEFV gene which encodes the pyrin protein. FMF is characterized
by sporadic, paroxysmal attacks of fever and serosal inflammation, lasting 1-3 days. Patients
may develop renal amyloidosis. Colchicine prevents attacks and renal amyloidosis.5% to 10% of the
patients with FMF are resistant or intolerant to colchicine. Colchicine resistant patients may receive
biological therapies. Anti-interleukin-1 drugs are the most important agents of biological treatments. In
this review, colchicine resistance and treatment options will be evaluated.