The Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic coccus-shaped bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus are among
the most important causative agents of acute and chronic bacterial infections in humans as well as in animals.
Treatment of Staphylococcus infections has become increasingly challenging due to the growing problem of antibiotic
resistance. For this reason innovative antimicrobials with novel targets and modes of action are needed.
Since the discovery that QS is used by Staphylococcus spp. to coordinate the expression of several genes involved
in virulence, biofilm formation and pathogenicity, QS inhibition has gained increasing attention as an alternative
anti-pathogenic strategy. A major advantage compared with antibiotic therapy is that QSIs are used in concentrations
that do not affect bacterial growth. For this reason, it is expected that these compounds would exert less pressure
towards the development of resistance. However, some important points still need to be addressed. Although
several inhibitors have proven to be active antipathogenic agents in vitro and in several in vivo models, it is still
unknown whether these compounds will also be useful in humans. Furthermore, several fundamental mechanisms by which the different
QS systems in Staphylococcus spp. exert their regulatory functions and how they are inhibited by QSIs are still poorly understood. In order
to achieve real-life applications with QSIs, these challenges should be addressed and more research will be needed. In this article, we
will discuss the different QS systems present in Staphylococcus spp., how they are used to control virulence and biofilm formation and
how they can be blocked.