Cell therapy for the failing heart has advanced in distinct phases or era with a first transition
from dynamic to cellular cardiomyoplasty. Currently, the quest is to find the optimal replacement cell
type or to engineer a substitute for the dysfunctional scarred tissue. Cell therapies still require major
refinements before they can—in a truly therapeutic manner—aid the suffering myocardium that fails
either to adequately support contraction or to permit dilatation. Here, we outline the road so far and
provide an insight into current and future challenges that await resolving.
Keywords: Autologous cell therapy, cardiomyoplasty, extracellular matrix, heart failure, micrografts, tissue.
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