Background: Stem cell strategies and autologous bone grafting remain a gold standard for
the reconstruction of bone defects in the maxillofacial region. In fact, maxillofacial tissue engineering
aims to reconstruct and regenerate bone that simultaneously fulfills both morphological and functional
restorations. For this purpose, scaffolds in combination with mesenchymal stem cells/osteoprogenitor
cells and bioactive factors are necessary to recreate a 3D microenvironment that improves the quality of engineered tissues.
Objective and Methods: The key objective of this mini-review is to analyze all the properties for the production of an engineered
bone construct for maxillofacial tissue engineering, considering stem cells as a source and the different biomaterials
used to support structures enhancing adhesion, proliferation and matrix production of seeded cells according to the
circumstances of the bone defects.
Results and Conclusion: In maxillofacial tissue engineering, dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) and bone-marrow mesenchymal
stem cells (BMSC) represent the most common source of stem cells used for the fabrication of 3D structures, thanks
to their ability of self-renewal and their capacity for multilineage differentiation. In addition, the identification of the most
suitable scaffold allows soft-tissue regeneration and bone repair is strongly recommended for autologous micro-grafts.
Fabrication of this 3D-culture will provide a powerful tool for regenerative medicine and may generate an adequate biocomplex
to restore delicate maxillofacial and craniofacial anomalies.