Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Space Dangers: Outer Space Perils, Rocket Risks and the Health Consequences of the Space Environment

Indexed in: Book Citation Index, Science Edition (BKCI-S), EBSCO.

Natural elements and cosmic phenomena in space, such as asteroids, comets, meteors, black holes and super bubbles pose a threat to the planet Earth and spacefarers in the near-Earth environment. ...
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Pp. 281-290 (10)

Dirk C. Gibson


The effect of the space environment on muscles was analyzed in this chapter. It was documented that a variety of muscle problems can result from space travel, including loss of contractile protein and connective tissue damage. Other harmful effects of space on muscles includes changes in muscle type, muscular twitching, muscle damage, tissue shrinkage, and reduced muscle volume. A number of causes of muscle problems in outer space were considered along with a few proposed solutions. The fact that spacefarers face muscle-related problems upon returning to the Earth was noted.


Atrophy, connective tissue, contractile protein, deconditioning, gravitational loading, ligament, metabolic stress, morphology, muscular atrophy, oppositional force, posture, Russian Space Agency, Salyut 7, sedentary, stress, tendinitis, tendon, twitching.


The University of New Mexico USA.