Current contraceptive options available to men include withdrawal, condoms, and vasectomy,
each of which has its own drawbacks. In this chapter we will describe the pros and cons for each, as well
as methodological and product updates. Statistics from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control on acceptance
and satisfaction will be included. Advances in vasectomy and reversal will be presented. Methods
to develop new contraceptive technologies fall into two categories: hormonal and non-hormonal. Many
targets and strategies have been proposed for non-hormonal male contraception within the testis. Targets
include structural components in the testis, as well as enzymes, ion channels and other proteins specific to spermatozoa.
Here we provide an overview of the spermatogenic mechanisms and proteins that have received research interest to date.
We also discuss potential novel targets, such as ubiquitin specific proteases, that warrant greater research emphasis.