Transcutaneous vaccination has become a widely used technique for providing immunity
against several types of pathogens, taking advantage of the immune components found in the skin. The
success in the field of vaccination has not only relied on the type of antigen and adjuvant delivered, but
also on how they are delivered. In this regard, particulate carriers, especially nanoparticles have evoked
considerable interest, owing to the desirable properties that they impart to the substance being delivered.
The presentation of antigens by the nanoparticles mimics the presentation of the immunogen by the pathogen; hence, it
creates a similar immune response. Furthermore, nanoparticles protect the antigen from degradation and allow its prolonged
release, which maximizes its exposure to the immune cells. The most commonly used materials for the formulation
of nanoparticles are either polymer-based or lipid based. This review will focus on the lipid based nanocarriers, either vesicular
such as liposomes, transfersomes, and ethosomes, or non-vesicular such as cubosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles,
nano-structured lipid carriers, solid in oil nanodispersions, lipoplexes, and hybrid polymeric-lipidic systems. The applications
of these carriers in the field of transcutaneous immunization will be discussed in this review as well.