Polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia comprise myeloproliferative neoplasms, the main
characteristic of which is an over-production of bone marrow myeloid lineage cells. The diseases typically involve
thrombosis and their treatment, apart from the strictly hematological aspect, involves antithrombotic agents. In this review
we aspire to present the possible role of the newly developed oral anticoagulants in the treatment scheme of polycythemia
vera and essential thrombocythemia.