Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a medical imaging technique that provides tomographic images at micron
scales in three dimensions and high speeds. The addition of molecular contrast to the available morphological image
holds great promise for extending OCT’s impact in clinical practice and beyond. Fundamental limitations prevent OCT
from directly taking advantage of powerful molecular processes such as fluorescence emission and incoherent Raman
scattering. A wide range of approaches is being researched to provide molecular contrast to OCT. Here we review those
approaches with particular attention to those that derive their molecular contrast directly from modulation of the OCT signal.
We also provide a brief overview of the multimodal approaches to gaining molecular contrast coincident with OCT.
Keywords: Fluoresence imaging, magnetomotive, molecular imaging, optical coherence tomography, photothermal, pump-probe.
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