The Impact of Helminths on the Human Microbiota: Therapeutic Correction of Disturbed Gut Microbial Immunity
Pp. 235-254 (20)
Thea Magrone, Emilio Jirillo and Giuseppe Miragliotta
Intestinal microbiota is in strict relationship with gut immune cells and a good
balance between both components is able to guarantee a condition of healthy status in the
host. Helminths tend to alter the host immune system via release of anti-inflammatory
cytokines and, in particular, interleukin (IL)-10. IL-10 release by FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg)
cells, in turn, down-regulates T helper (h)2 cells, which instead protects the host against
helminths. At the same time, helminths are able to interact with intestinal microbiota, thus
leading to either harmful or protective effects. Therapeutically, polyphenols have been shown
to modulate gut microbiota, also interfering with helminth development. In this context, our
studies using polyphenols from red wine and fermented grape marc have shown antiinflammatory
activities exerted by these compounds, even including expansion and activation
of Treg cells. Since evidence has been provided that Treg cell activation with production of
IL-10 can attenuate immunopathology in the later phase of helminth infections, dietary
polyphenols may be beneficial in the chronic stage of parasitoses.
Antigen presenting cells, bacteria, basophils, cytokines, dendritic cells,
eosinophils, helminths, interferon, interleukins, immunopathology, lipopolysaccharides,
macrophages, microbiota, monocytes, neutrophils, polymorphonuclear
cells, polyphenols, T helper cells, T regulatory cells, Toll like receptors.
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, Policlinico, Piazza Giulio Cesare, 11-70124 Bari, Italy.