Inflammation in Ischemic Stroke: Mechanisms, Consequences and Possible Drug Targets

Author(s): Muzamil Ahmad, Nawab J. Dar, Zubair S. Bhat, Aehtesham Hussain, Ayatullah Shah, Hao Liu, Steven H. Graham

Journal Name: CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets
(Formerly Current Drug Targets - CNS & Neurological Disorders)

Volume 13 , Issue 8 , 2014

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Ischemic stroke is caused when blood flow to the brain is hampered, leading to instant deficiency of nutrients and oxygen required for normal brain functioning. Reperfusion can alleviate damage from stroke if performed immediately after the onset of ischemia however the efficacy of reperfusion is tempered by secondary injury mechanisms. This multifarious sequence of events leads to the commencement of deleterious cycles of inflammation, oxidant stress and apoptosis that finally culminate in delayed death of neuronal cells even when the brain is effectively reperfused. Wealth of data from clinical as well as experimental studies points to a prominent role of inflammation in secondary injury. In this review we will discuss, in detail, the cellular and molecular mediators of inflammation and their possible therapeutic targets in both experimental and clinical forms of stroke.

Keywords: Cerebral ischemia, cyclooxygenase-2, cytokines and chemokines, inflammation, microglia, middle cerebral artery occlusion, prostaglandin.

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Article Details

Year: 2014
Page: [1378 - 1396]
Pages: 19
DOI: 10.2174/1871527313666141023094720
Price: $65

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