Stem cells possess both self-renewing and multi-lineage differentiation properties and are being explored extensively
for use as a cellular therapy for regenerative medicine. Historically, replacement of lost neurons and restoration
of neural circuits was primarily considered as the main mechanism by which stem cells restore function in the injured central
nervous system (CNS). However, evidence is accumulating that implicates stem cell-derived trophic factors in the
neuroprotection of compromised endogenous neurons and regeneration of their axons and dendrites. In this concise review,
we summarise the potential of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSC), adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells
(AMSC), dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) and neural stem cells (NSC) to repair the injured CNS, with particular reference
to spinal cord injury and optic nerve/retinal injury.
Keywords: Cell transplantation, mesenchymal stem cells, medicine, neural stem cells, regenerative spinal cord injury, retina.
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