Infection countinue to be a significant health problem and the cause of patient mortality and morbidity especially
in developing countries. Accurate and timely detection of infection and inflammation may have essential implications
for the managing of patients. Imaging by nuclear medicinal techniques, due to its high sensitivity, offers a fascinating
choice for diagnosis of infectious foci. The use of radiopharmaceuticals for targeting of infection specifically is increasing
because of their ability to distinguish between septic and aseptic inflammation. Specific targeting of the microorganisms
is the main strategy for enhancing the selectivity of new radiopharmaceuticals for imaging of infective lesions. In
this context, radiolabeled antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides are thoroughly studied in order to investigate their diagnostic
value as specific imaging agents. In this review, the aspects of presently used radiopharmaceuticals to image infection
and inflammatory procedures and their potential to differenciate infection from inflammation are discussed.
Keywords: Antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides, infection, inflammation, imaging, nuclear medicine, targeting radiopharmaceuticals.
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