Fuel cells are the energy conversion devices that can convert the chemical energy of fuel into electrical energy
efficiently and, more importantly, in a greener way by utilizing air as an oxidant. Solid polymeric electrolyte membrane is
one of the major parts of the fuel cell device, which selectively allows the passage of protons while blocking the flow of
electrons through it and makes the device functional. Till date, Nafion® is the most successful candidate in this field but it
loses its proton conductivity at elevated temperature due to the loss of water molecules. In addition to the functional requirement
of membranes, the durability and stability are also prime concerns for the electrolyte membranes. To develop
alternative suitable membranes at lower cost different systems have been investigated time to time as fuel cell membranes.
In this review, patents and research articles on various approaches that have been practiced to fabricate the alternative
membranes, their characterization, stability, durability, degradation mechanism along with the life cycle estimation will be
discussed to acquire a complete overview about the material design and fabrication of a perfect membrane electrode assembly.