Seventy five percent of hospitalized patients with Crohn’s disease suffer from malnutrition. One third of
Crohn’s disease patients have a body mass index below 20. Sixty percent of Crohn’s disease patients have sarcopenia.
However some inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are obese or suffer from sarcopenic-obesity. IBD patients have
many vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, which can lead to important consequences such as hyperhomocysteinemia, which
is associated with a higher risk of thromboembolic disease. Nutritional deficiencies in IBD patients are the result of insufficient
intake, malabsorption and protein-losing enteropathy as well as metabolic disturbances directly induced by the
chronic disease and its treatments, in particular corticosteroids. Screening for nutritional deficiencies in chronic disease
patients is warranted. Managing the deficiencies involves simple nutritional guidelines, vitamin supplements, and nutritional
support in the worst cases.
Keywords: Crohn's disease, enteral nutrition, malnutrition, metabolism, nutrition, obesity, osteopenia, parenteral nutrition,
sarcopenia, ulcerative colitis, vitamins.
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