Recent Patents on Ophthalmic Nanoformulations and Therapeutic Implications

Author(s): Ann-Marie Ako-Adounvo, Ramesh C. Nagarwal, Lais Oliveira, Sai H.S. Boddu, Xiang S. Wang, Surajit Dey, Pradeep K. Karla

Journal Name: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
Continued as Recent Advances in Drug Delivery and Formulation

Volume 8 , Issue 3 , 2014


Abstract:

Nanoformulations (NF) are widely explored as potential alternatives for traditional ophthalmic formulation approaches. The effective treatment of ocular diseases using conventional eye drops is often hampered by factors such as: physiological barriers, rapid elimination, protein binding, and enzymatic drug degradation. Combined, these factors are known to contribute to reduced ocular residence time and poor bioavailability. Recent research studies demonstrated that NF can significantly enhance the therapeutic efficacy and bioavailability of ocular drugs, compared to the established ophthalmic drug delivery strategies. The research studies resulted in a number of patent inventions, reporting a significant increase in therapeutic efficacy for various chronic ocular disease states of both the anterior and posterior ocular segments. This article reviews these patent disclosures in detail and emphasizes the therapeutic advantages conferred by the following nanoformulation approaches: Calcium Phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles, Liposomes, Nanoemulsions, Nanomicelles, and Hydrogels. The nanoformulation approaches were shown to enhance the ocular bioavailability by reducing the drugprotein binding, increasing the corneal resident time, enhancing the drug permeability and providing a sustained drug release. Further, the article discusses United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) approved ocular drugs employing nanotechnology and future developments.

It should be noted that, despite the potential therapeutic promise demonstrated by nanotechnology for ocular drug delivery, the bench to bed transition from patent inventions to marketed drug products has been insignificant. Majority of the discussed technologies are still in development and testing phase for commercial viability. Further, studies are in progress to assess ocular tolerance and nanotoxicity for prolonged use of NF.

Keywords: Calcium phosphate nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, nanomicelles, ophthalmic bioavailability, ophthalmic nanoformulations.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 8
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2014
Published on: 15 October, 2014
Page: [193 - 201]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1872211308666140926112000
Price: $65

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