Nanoformulations (NF) are widely explored as potential alternatives for traditional ophthalmic formulation approaches.
The effective treatment of ocular diseases using conventional eye drops is often hampered by factors such as:
physiological barriers, rapid elimination, protein binding, and enzymatic drug degradation. Combined, these factors are
known to contribute to reduced ocular residence time and poor bioavailability. Recent research studies demonstrated that
NF can significantly enhance the therapeutic efficacy and bioavailability of ocular drugs, compared to the established ophthalmic
drug delivery strategies. The research studies resulted in a number of patent inventions, reporting a significant increase
in therapeutic efficacy for various chronic ocular disease states of both the anterior and posterior ocular segments.
This article reviews these patent disclosures in detail and emphasizes the therapeutic advantages conferred by the following
nanoformulation approaches: Calcium Phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles, Liposomes, Nanoemulsions, Nanomicelles, and
Hydrogels. The nanoformulation approaches were shown to enhance the ocular bioavailability by reducing the drugprotein
binding, increasing the corneal resident time, enhancing the drug permeability and providing a sustained drug release.
Further, the article discusses United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) approved ocular drugs employing
nanotechnology and future developments.
It should be noted that, despite the potential therapeutic promise demonstrated by nanotechnology for ocular drug delivery,
the bench to bed transition from patent inventions to marketed drug products has been insignificant. Majority of the
discussed technologies are still in development and testing phase for commercial viability. Further, studies are in progress
to assess ocular tolerance and nanotoxicity for prolonged use of NF.