Advances in Alzheimer's Research

Volume: 2

Indexed in: EBSCO, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is currently recognized as an untreatable, progressive, degenerative and terminal disease that is global – afflicting over 36 million people worldwide, with the number ...
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N200 Latency and CSF Cytochrome C Levels as Biomarkers for Early Detection of Progression to Alzheimer’s Disease in Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients

Pp. 171-186 (16)

DOI: 10.2174/9781608058525114020008

Author(s): Vasileios T. Papaliagkas, Georgios A. Anogianakis, Magda N. Tsolaki, Vasileios K. Kimiskidis


The role of CSF cytochrome c levels and auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) in the progress of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is investigated. A study sample that consisted of fifty one MCI patients and fourteen healthy individuals that underwent lumbar puncture at baseline was used and their CSF cytochrome c levels were determined. CSF cytochrome c levels were reexamined in 20 patients after a time period of 11 months. During this period five patients progressed to AD. All patients underwent AERP examinations both at baseline and follow-up. MCI patients were found to have significantly higher cytochrome c levels compared to healthy controls (Mann-Whitney test, Z=-2.110, p=0.018). ADconverters, had a higher increase over time in cytochrome c levels (Mann-Whitney test, p=0.002; effect size r=0.63) and significantly prolonged N200 latency (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.001; effect size r=0.50) compared to MCI stable patients. Amongst the ERP wave characteristics that were studied, only N200 amplitude was significantly correlated with CSF cytochrome c levels (rs=0.310, p=0.03). Both parameters could discriminate AD converters from MCI stable patients, with sensitivity and specificity >75%. When both N200 latency and cytochrome c increase were applied, the prediction of the MCI patients who converted to AD was 100%.

Our results suggest that MCI to AD conversion is associated with a marked elevated N200 latency at baseline and a high increase in cytochrome c levels during a relatively short period of time, and that both parameters could be possibly considered as candidate markers for the discrimination between AD converters and MCI stable patients.


Alzheimer’s Disease, auditory event-related potentials, cytochrome c, mild cognitive impairment, N200 latency