Myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure (HF) are leading causes of mortality and
morbidity in the Western World. Therapeutic approaches using interventional cardiology and
bioengineering techniques have thus far focused on either salvaging viable tissue post-infarction
or preserving cardiac function in the failing myocardium. Regenerative medicine on the other
hand, attempts to renew damaged tissue and enhance cardiac functional performance.
Tremendous advances have been made in this field since the introduction and ethical approval for
use of stem-cells (SC) and relevant technologies in pre-clinical and clinical practice. While study
outcomes are still ambivalent on the potential translational impact of SCs, renewed hope has
arisen since the introduction of induced pluripotent stem-cells (iPS) and the prospect of intact
organ development and transplantation. The aim of this work is to review recent discoveries and the patent landscape
employing stem-cell engineering, labeling and image-based monitoring strategies, their use in bioreactors and
constructions of enriched bio-artificial membranes, as well as the potential role in artificial organ development and
transplantation, with relevance to anticipated impact in pre-clinical screening and widespread clinical use.
Keywords: 3D printing, myocardial infarction, organ development, scaffolds, scar regeneration, stem cell, translational
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