Helicobacter pylori are the main cause of gastritis, peptic ulceration and distal gastric adenocarcinoma. Bacterial
virulence factors actively contribute in the clinical outcome and progression of Helicobacter pylori infection. The
wide range of digestive disease attributed with Helicobacter pylori infection has led scientists to a huge interest in biomarkers.
Thus, determination of a biomarker as practical patent for each infectious disease needs a logical clinical set up.
Identification of a validated biomarker for Helicobacter pylori calls further investigations including in vitro and in vivo
experiments. Undoubtedly, determination of best available biomarker such as dupA can help physicians to go one step further
to manage persistent colonizsation of Helicobacter pylori.
Keywords: Biomarkers, cagA, clinical outcome, dupA, Helicobacter pylori, oipA.
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