Pathological Role for Exocytotic Glutamate Release from Astrocytes in Hepatic Encephalopathy

Author(s): Vedrana Montana, Alexei Verkhratsky, Vladimir Parpura

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Volume 12 , Issue 4 , 2014

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Liver failure can lead to generalized hyperammonemia, which is thought to be the underlying cause of hepatic encephalopathy. This neuropsychiatric syndrome is accompanied by functional changes of astrocytes. These glial cells enter ammonia-induced self-amplifying cycle characterized by brain oedema, oxidative and osmotic stress that causes modification of proteins and RNA. Consequently, protein expression and function are affected, including that of glutamine synthetase and plasmalemmal glutamate transporters, leading to glutamate excitotoxicity; Ca2+-dependent exocytotic glutamate release from astrocytes contributes to this extracellular glutamate overload.

Keywords: Astrocytes, exocytosis, glutamate release, hepatic encephalopathy.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2014
Published on: 01 September, 2014
Page: [324 - 333]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/1570159X12666140903094700
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 12