The presence of Galanin and Neuropeptide Y and/or their receptors in several areas of the brain involved in
memory, mood, cardiovascular control and food intake indicates that Galanin, and Neuropeptide Y could equilibrate the
physiological actions of each other. There is evidence for the existence of interactions between Galanin Receptor and
Neuropeptide Y Receptor in the nucleus of the solitarii tract (NTS), hypothalamus and dorsal raphe nucleus probably taking
place with the formation of heteromers between Galanin Receptor and Neuropeptide Y Y1 Receptor. The galanin
fragment (Gal 1-15) preferring receptors may instead be formed by the GalR1-GalR2 heteromer which in the NTS may interact
with Neuropeptide Y Y2 receptors. These receptor heteromers may be one key molecular mechanism for Galanin
and its N-terminal fragment (Galanin 1-15) to modulate the function of different types of glia–neuronal networks in the
CNS, especially the emotional, metabolic and cardiovascular networks.
Keywords: Galanin, Galanin 1-15, Galanin receptor subtypes, GPCRs, Heteromers, Neuropeptide Y, NPY receptors.
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