Periodontal disease, is the most prevalent inflammatory affliction characterized by the loss of supporting structures
of the teeth. Although bacteria are identified as prime agents initiating the disease, but major part of tissue destruction
is driven by the host immune response to infecting agent and is responsible for the clinical presentation of the disease.
Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) has been identified as main microbial factor for causation and progression of
periodontal disease. Three emerging concepts of periodontal disease viz wide prevalence, polymicrobial nature and their
role in perpetuation of systemic diseases bear critical significance on the development of novel therapeutic approaches to
eradicate or alleviate the disease burden. Therefore, development of preventive approaches such as periodontal vaccine
appears as an exciting modality which can prove as a significant adjunct to current periodontal therapies. The new generation
diagnostics including microbial genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis are available now to detect and analyze
the whole genomic and proteomic data regarding almost all human pathogens for exploring these as novel drug targets
for vaccine development. The current review, aims to provide an update of wide-ranging virulence factors of P. gingivalis
as potential antigenic targets for periodontal vaccine developement.
Keywords: Antigen, fimbriae, gingipains, P. gingivalis, periodontal disease, vaccine.
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