The infection of a vascular prosthesis (VGI) is the most serious complication in prosthetic vascular reconstructive
surgery, burdened by a high rate of mortality and morbidity. The treatment of a VGI, in most cases, consists of its
surgical removal, and therefore an accurate diagnosis of the infection, is of paramount importance in clinical practice
since false-positive results may lead to unnecessary major surgery whereas false-negative results are related with high-risk
morbidity. Furthermore, early diagnosis of infection permits a wider range of therapeutic options and a less aggressive
surgical approach. On the basis of the documents and abstracts published in the last 25 years, the authors analyze and discuss
the contribution of nuclear medicine in the management of these infections, evaluating the reliability of scintigraphy
with labeled leukocytes, other gamma-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, PET and PET / CT with 18F-Fluorodeoxiglucose.