Cellular Changes, Molecular Pathways and the Immune System Following Photodynamic Treatment

Author(s): P. Skupin-Mrugalska, L. Sobotta, M. Kucinska, M. Murias, J. Mielcarek, N. Duzgunes

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 21 , Issue 35 , 2014

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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a novel medical technique involving three key components: light, a photosensitizer molecule and molecular oxygen, which are essential to achieve the therapeutic effect. There has been great interest in the use of PDT in the treatment of many cancers and skin disorders. Upon irradiation with light of a specific wavelength, the photosensitizer undergoes several reactions resulting in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS may react with different biomolecules, causing defects in many cellular structures and biochemical pathways. PDT-mediated tumor destruction in vivo involves cellular mechanisms with photodamage of mitochondria, lysosomes, nuclei, and cell membranes that activate apoptotic, necrotic and autophagic signals, leading to cell death. PDT is capable of changing the tumor microenvironment, thereby diminishing the supply of oxygen, which explains the antiangiogenic effect of PDT. Finally, inflammatory and immune responses play a crucial role in the long-lasting consequences of PDT treatment. This review is focused on the biochemical effects exerted by photodynamic treatment on cell death signaling pathways, destruction of the vasculature, and the activation of the immune system.

Keywords: Angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell death, cellular mechanism, immunology, PDT mechanism, photodynamic therapy, photosensitizer.

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Article Details

Year: 2014
Page: [4059 - 4073]
Pages: 15
DOI: 10.2174/0929867321666140826120300
Price: $65

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PDF: 57