Flame Retardants in Indoor Dust - A Review on the Levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Hexabromocyclododecanes

Author(s): Sonia D. Coelho, Ana C.A. Sousa, Tomohiko Isobe, Shinsuke Tanabe, Antonio J.A. Nogueira

Journal Name: Current Organic Chemistry

Volume 18 , Issue 17 , 2014

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Graphical Abstract:


Modern people spend a considerable time of their life indoors, whether at home, at the workplace or at school, or inside vehicles and public transportation, therefore exposure to a variety of contaminants present indoors is constant and profuse. These contaminants released from household products tend to accumulate and concentrate in dust which is thus considered as one of the main human exposure pathways to several chemicals either by inhalation or ingestion. Within this wide range of contaminants polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecanes are included. These two brominated flame retardants have been applied in a vast range of materials with the aim to inhibit or delay the combustion and prevent the fire progression thus increasing the available time for people to escape. The extensive usage granted them a ubiquitous presence in the indoor environment and also in humans. Due to their toxicity and their potential to bioaccumulate these flame retardants have been restricted or banned. However, their persistency in the environment and the increasing evidences of deleterious effects towards humans and wildlife renders the study of these contaminants a matter of great importance. In this review we gathered available information on the levels of PBDEs and HBCDs in indoor dust samples collected from different places and different regions around the world and discuss human exposure to these contaminants through dust.

Keywords: Flame retardants, hexabromocyclododecanes, human exposure, indoor dust, polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

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Article Details

Year: 2014
Published on: 21 October, 2014
Page: [2218 - 2230]
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.2174/1385272819666140804231237
Price: $58

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