Nanosize materials provide hopes, speculations and chances for an unprecedented change in drug delivery in near future.
Nanotechnology is an emerging field to produce nanomaterials for drug delivery that can offer a new tool, opportunities and
scope to provide more focused and fine-tuned treatment of diseases at a molecular level, enhancing the therapeutic potential of
drugs so that they become less toxic and more effective. Nanodimensional drug delivery systems are of great scientific interest
as they project their tremendous utility because of their capability of altering biodistribution of therapeutic agents so that they
can concentrate more in the target tissues. Nanosize drug delivery systems generally focus on formulating bioactive molecules
in biocompatible nanosystems such as nanocrystals, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructure lipid carriers, lipid drug conjugates,
nanoliposomes, dendrimers, nanoshells, emulsions, nanotubes, quantum dots etc. Extensively versatile molecules like synthetic
chemicals to naturally occurring complex macromolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins could be dispensed in such formulations
maintaining their stability and efficacy. Empty viral capsids are being tried to deliver drug as these uniformly sized bionanomaterials
can be utilized to load drug to improve solubility, reduce toxicity and provide site specific targeting.
Nanomedicines offer a wide scope for delivery of smart materials from tissue engineering to more recently artificial RBCs.
Nanocomposites are the future hope for tailored and personalized medicines as well as for bone repairing and rectification of
Nanosize drug delivery systems are addressing the challenges to overcome the delivery problems of wide ranges of drugs
through their narrow submicron particle size range, easily manipulatable surface characteristics in achievement of versatile tissue
targeting (includes active and passive drug targeting), controlled and sustained drug release property to achieve increased
therapeutic efficacy and reduced side effects.
Nanoparticles and nanoliposomes are emerging areas of nanotechnologies that have already begun to make an impact over
new modalities for cancer chemotherapy, diagnosis as well as gene delivery. Presently it is possible to reduce the particle size
in such a way that the particles can be easily injected or inhaled and many types of human cells are capable to internalize them.
A number of fabrications such as PEGylation, specific antibody conjugation, aptamer ligation, specific ligand binding etc. on
the nanosize delivery devices makes them in the streamline of research to particularly target the diseased cells thus avoiding the
Potential of nanosize carriers to cross the blood brain barrier encourages us to build up a new strategy for delivery of therapeutically
active agents to the brain. Nanotechnology is showing an emerging effect in chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer,
neurodegenerative diseases etc. Nanosize vaccines are having greater effect in production of better immunity against
pathogens through direct administration of medication to the specialized dendritic cells in the immune systems.
Lots of hopes and speculations are reigning around the scientists with nanosize drug delivery systems that may revolutionize
the drug delivery with the better understanding of drug action mechanism and identification of biomarker associated with specific
diseases. Nanosize drug delivery systems are emerging with the promising strategies for efficient targeted drug delivery.
The proper designing of these systems can make them capable for being independent in the normal tissue environments and
selective at the diseased pharmacological site.
Nanomaterials as formulations are already in the market or in clinical trials. Investigation on nanostructural drug delivery is
a highly growing field today as an extensive amount of research is on with an expectation to open up new avenues to drug delivery.
No doubt the next era of drug therapy will be greater influenced by nanoscale drug delivery systems. However these
newer systems for delivery of bioactive molecules must be reliable, efficient and safe.