Gene Expression Profiles in Breast Cancer to Identify Estrogen Receptor Target Genes
Pp. 381-403 (23)
Maria Aparecida Nagai and Brentani M.M.
The estrogens play important role in the homeostatic maintenance of
several target tissues including those in the mammary gland, uterus, bone,
cardiovascular system, and brain. Most of estrogen’s action is thought to be
mediated through its nuclear estrogen receptors, ER and ER, which are members
of the nuclear receptor superfamily that act as ligand-induced transcription factors.
Acting via its receptors, estrogen also plays an essential role in the development
and progression of human breast cancer. The ER and progesterone receptor (PR),
which is regulated by estrogen via ER, have been used as prognostic markers in the
clinical management of breast cancer patients. However, the prognosis of a patient
with ER+/PR+ breast cancer can be highly variable and a significant proportion of
hormone receptor positive breast cancers do not respond to endocrine therapy. The
identification of estrogen receptor target genes may improve our understanding of
the role played by estrogens in breast cancer making it possible to better tailor
hormone treatments and improve a patient’s response to hormonal therapy. In this
review, we explore the literature for data regarding the identification of estrogen
receptor-regulated genes in breast cancer cell lines and breast tumor biopsies using
high throughput technologies such as serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and
Breast cancer, estrogen receptor, gene expression profiling,
Center for Translational Research in Oncology, Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Cancer Institute of the State of São Paulo (ICESP), Av Dr Arnaldo, 251, 8th Floor, CEP 01246-000, São Paulo, Brazil.